Qt for Python & Nuitka#
Nuitka lets you compile your python application into a stand-alone executable. Besides being a Python compiler which provides a fair acceleration, it has the side-effect of acting as an installer as well. Nuitka supports Linux, macOS and Windows.
For more details, see the official documentation.
Install Nuitka via pip with the following command:
pip3 install nuitka
After installation, the nuitka3 binary is located in your virtual environment’s bin/ directory, or where your Python executable is located. Alternatively, you can also run:
python3 -m nuitka
to achieve the same effect.
Freeze an application#
Nuitka has many options that you can use. To list them all, run nuitka3 -h.
To simply compile a project, you can run:
There are two main features:
the option to place it in a directory containing the libraries (–standalone)
the option to package the whole project (including shared libraries) into one executable file (–onefile)
If you use these options, you need to specify –plugin-enable=pyside6.
Run an example#
Now, consider the following script, named hello.py:
import sys import random from PySide6.QtWidgets import (QApplication, QLabel, QPushButton, QVBoxLayout, QWidget) from PySide6.QtCore import Slot, Qt class MyWidget(QWidget): def __init__(self): QWidget.__init__(self) self.hello = ["Hallo Welt", "你好，世界", "Hei maailma", "Hola Mundo", "Привет мир"] self.button = QPushButton("Click me!") self.text = QLabel("Hello World") self.text.setAlignment(Qt.AlignCenter) self.layout = QVBoxLayout() self.layout.addWidget(self.text) self.layout.addWidget(self.button) self.setLayout(self.layout) # Connecting the signal self.button.clicked.connect(self.magic) @Slot() def magic(self): self.text.setText(random.choice(self.hello)) if __name__ == "__main__": app = QApplication(sys.argv) widget = MyWidget() widget.resize(800, 600) widget.show() sys.exit(app.exec())
You don’t have to copy this script. You find it as examples/installer_test/hello.py.
The command line to proceed looks like this:
This process creates an executable hello.bin and a directory hello.build that you don’t need. You can execute the binary directly.
In order to create a bundle which can be copied onto a machine without any pre-existing installation, run:
nuitka3 --standalone --plugin-enable=pyside6 examples/installer_test/hello.py
This creates an application hello.dist/hello that contains everything needed to run.
To run the application, go to hello.dist/ and run the program:
cd hello.dist ./hello
Use the –onefile option if you prefer to have everything bundled into one executable, without the shared libraries next to it. First you need to install:
pip3 install zstandard
for data compression. Then you can run
nuitka3 –onefile –plugin-enable=pyside6 examples/installer_test/hello.py
This process takes a bit longer, but in the end you have one executable hello.bin:
Nuitka issue on macOS#
Nuitka currently has a problem with the macOS bundle files on current macOS versions. That has the effect that –standalone and –onefile create a crashing application. Older versions which don’t have the recent macOS API changes from 2020 will work. We are currently trying to fix that problem.