WebEngine Widgets WebUI Example#
Displays HTML over a custom scheme.
WebUI demonstrates how to implement a custom scheme in a secure way.
Aside from the built-in URL schemes, such as
qrc, Qt WebEngine may be extended with custom schemes by creating custom scheme handlers. This example shows:
How to create a custom scheme handler which serves HTML and handles HTML form submissions.
How to prevent ordinary web content from accessing the custom scheme.
How to prevent any other scheme from submitting HTML form data.
Running the Example#
To run the example from Qt Creator , open the Welcome mode and select the example from Examples. For more information, visit Building and Running an Example.
The example program consists of a single
QWebEngineView showing a simple HTML page loaded from the URL
webui:about, over our custom scheme. Pressing the button at the bottom of the page will trigger an HTML form submission via POST to the same URL, at which point our custom scheme handler will cause the application to exit.
The program is divided into two parts, the
main function for setting everything up, and the
WebUiHandler class for implementing our custom scheme handler. The
main function is quite short:
Aside from the relatively standard setup of widgets, two points are noteworthy. First, we call the static method
WebUiHandler::registerUrlScheme() to register our custom scheme with the web engine. Second, we create and install our custom scheme handler
installUrlSchemeHandler() . The following sections describe these aspects in more detail.
Registering the Scheme#
As custom schemes are integrated directly into the web engine, they do not necessarily need to follow the standard security rules which apply to ordinary web content. Depending on the chosen configuration, content served over a custom scheme may be given access to local resources, be set to ignore Content-Security-Policy rules, or conversely, be denied access to any other content entirely.
In order to take advantage of these possibilities, the custom scheme must first be registered. This means creating and configuring a
QWebEngineUrlScheme object and then handing it over to
registerScheme() . The example program does exactly this in the static method
A custom scheme needs a name, which can be set by passing it to the constructor of
QWebEngineUrlScheme or by calling
setName . In the above, the name
webui is set through the constructor. Additionally, we activate the flags
LocalAccessAllowed . Since our custom scheme handler will not deliver resources received from insecure network connections, we can safely mark it as a
LocalScheme flag prevents content from non-local schemes (such as
http) from interacting with our custom scheme. Without this flag it would be possible, for example, to embed the
webui:about page in an
<iframe> element on a remotely loaded HTML page, perhaps to attempt a phishing attack. We also need the
LocalAccessAllowed flag without which we would not be able to access the
webui scheme from our
Earlier we saw that the call to
WebUiHandler::registerUrlScheme() is made already at the top of the
main function. This is so because custom schemes need to be registered as early as possible so that that they can be passed to all subprocesses. Specifically, custom schemes need to be registered before any other Qt WebEngine classes are instantiated by the application.
A custom scheme handler is, broadly speaking, similar to a web application served over HTTP. However, because custom schemes are integrated directly into the web engine, they have the advantage in terms of efficiency: there’s no need for generating and parsing HTTP messages or for transferring data over sockets.
Implementing a handler means creating a subclass of
QWebEngineUrlSchemeHandler , which is just what is done by the
WebUiHandler class of the example program:
For each request to a
webui URL, the
WebUiHandler::requestStarted() method will be called:
job contains the request’s attributes and provides methods for replying to the request with a response. Responses are generated asynchronously by reading them from the
QIODevice that the application passes to
requestStarted() method is not called from the main thread, but from the web engine’s IO thread. Care must be taken to synchronize access to any resources on the main thread.
Aside from the usual fare of
requestUrl , there is also the
initiator , holding the origin of the content which initiated the request. An empty
initiator means the request was initiated directly by the application (via
setUrl() , for example). The special value
"null" corresponds to an opaque origin (a sandboxed
<iframe> element, for example). Otherwise, the
initiator will contain the URL scheme, hostname, and port of the content which initiated the request.
In this example, the
initiator is used to ensure that
POST requests to
webui:about will only trigger the application’s exit if they originate from the
webui scheme. This prevents content loaded over other schemes from triggering the application’s exit.