QQuick3DGeometry Class

Base class for defining custom geometry. More...

Header: #include <QQuick3DGeometry>
Since: Qt 5.15
Instantiated By: Geometry
Inherits: QQuick3DObject

Public Functions

void addAttribute(Attribute::Semantic semantic, int offset, Attribute::ComponentType componentType)
void addAttribute(const QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute &attribute)
void addSubset(int offset, int count, const QVector3D &boundsMin, const QVector3D &boundsMax, const QString &name = {})
QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute attribute(int index) const
int attributeCount() const
QVector3D boundsMax() const
QVector3D boundsMin() const
void clear()
QByteArray indexData() const
QQuick3DGeometry::PrimitiveType primitiveType() const
void setBounds(const QVector3D &min, const QVector3D &max)
void setIndexData(const QByteArray &data)
void setIndexData(int offset, const QByteArray &data)
void setPrimitiveType(QQuick3DGeometry::PrimitiveType type)
void setStride(int stride)
void setVertexData(const QByteArray &data)
void setVertexData(int offset, const QByteArray &data)
int stride() const
QVector3D subsetBoundsMax(int subset) const
QVector3D subsetBoundsMin(int subset) const
int subsetCount() const
int subsetCount(int subset) const
QString subsetName(int subset) const
int subsetOffset(int subset) const
QByteArray vertexData() const

Detailed Description

The QQuick3DGeometry can be used to specify custom geometry for a Model in the Qt Quick 3D scene.

While not strictly required, the typical usage is to inherit from this class. The subclass is then exposed to QML by registering it to the type system. The geometry property of a Model can then be set to reference an instance of the registered type.

The high-level structure of such a class is typically similar to the following:

class CustomGeometry : public QQuick3DGeometry
{
public:
    CustomGeometry() { rebuildGeometry(); }

    void setSomething() {
       // Change relevant internal data.
       // ...

       // Then rebuild the vertex and index data and pass it to QQuick3DGeometry.
       rebuildGeometry();

       // Finally, trigger an update. This is relevant in case nothing else
       // is changing in the scene; this way we make sure a new frame will
       // be rendered.
       update();
    }

private:
    void rebuildGeometry()
    {
        QByteArray vertices;
        QByteArray indices;
        ...
        setPrimitiveType(Lines);
        setVertexBuffer(vertices);
        setIndexBuffer(indices);
        setStride(3 * sizeof(float)); // e.g. when having 3 components per vertex
        setBounds(...); // minimum and maximum extents, for picking
        addAttribute(PositionSemantic, 0, F32Type);
        ...
    }
};

This class can then be registered as a QML type and used with Model.

In Qt 5 type registration happened with qmlRegisterType:

qmlRegisterType<CustomGeometry>("Example", 1, 0, "CustomGeometry");

In Qt 6 the default approach is to use automatic registration with the help of the build system. Instead of calling qmlRegisterType, the .pro file can now contain:

CONFIG += qmltypes
QML_IMPORT_NAME = Example
QML_IMPORT_MAJOR_VERSION = 1

With CMake, automatic registration is the default behavior, so no special settings are needed beyond basic QML module setup:

qt_add_qml_module(application
    URI Example
    VERSION 1.0
)

The class implementation should add QML_NAMED_ELEMENT:

class CustomGeometry : public QQuick3DGeometry
{
    Q_OBJECT
    QML_NAMED_ELEMENT(CustomGeometry)
    ...
};

The QML code can then use the custom type:

import Example 1.0

Model {
    id: customModel
    geometry: CustomGeometry {
    }
}

At minimum, a custom geometry should have the following specified:

  • vertex data,
  • vertex stride,
  • primitive type,
  • an attribute with PositionSemantic.

These are sufficient to render the mesh. For indexed drawing, the index buffer data and an attribute with IndexSemantic needs to be specified as well. In order to support picking (input), the class must specify the bounding volume using setBounds(). For proper lighting, an attribute with NormalSemantic is needed. When the material uses texturing, at least one set of UV coordinates must be provided and described in an TexCoord0Semantic or TexCoord1Semantic attribute. Some materials may require tangents and binormals as well.

As a concrete, minimal example, the following class would provide geometry for a single triangle:

class ExampleGeometry : public QQuick3DGeometry
{
    Q_OBJECT
    QML_NAMED_ELEMENT(ExampleGeometry)

public:
    ExampleGeometry();

private:
    void updateData();
};

ExampleGeometry::ExampleGeometry()
{
    updateData();
}

void ExampleGeometry::updateData()
{
    QByteArray v;
    v.resize(3 * 3 * sizeof(float));
    float *p = reinterpret_cast<float *>(v.data());

    // a triangle, front face = counter-clockwise
    *p++ = -1.0f; *p++ = -1.0f; *p++ = 0.0f;
    *p++ = 1.0f; *p++ = -1.0f; *p++ = 0.0f;
    *p++ = 0.0f; *p++ = 1.0f; *p++ = 0.0f;

    setVertexData(v);
    setStride(3 * sizeof(float));

    setPrimitiveType(QQuick3DGeometry::PrimitiveType::Triangles);

    addAttribute(QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute::PositionSemantic,
                 0,
                 QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute::F32Type);
}

Depending on the lighting in the scene, the result of referencing this geometry from a Model:

Note: Vertex data is expected to follow OpenGL conventions. This means the data must be provided with the assumption that the Y axis is pointing up in the normalized device coordinate system, and that front faces have a counter clockwise winding.

See also Model and Geometry.

Member Function Documentation

void QQuick3DGeometry::addAttribute(Attribute::Semantic semantic, int offset, Attribute::ComponentType componentType)

Adds vertex attribute description. Each attribute has a semantic, which specifies the usage of the attribute and the number of components it has, an offset from the beginning to the vertex to the attribute location inside a vertex and a componentType specifying the datatype and size of the attribute.

The semantic can be one of the following:

ConstantDescription
PositionSemanticThe attribute is a position. 3 components: x, y, and z
NormalSemanticThe attribute is a normal vector. 3 components: x, y, and z
TexCoord0SemanticThe attribute is a texture coordinate. 2 components: u and v
TexCoord1SemanticThe attribute is a texture coordinate. 2 components: u and v
TangentSemanticThe attribute is a tangent vector. 3 components: x, y, and z
BinormalSemanticThe attribute is a binormal vector. 3 components: x, y, and z
JointSemanticThe attribute is a joint index vector for skinning. 4 components: joint index 1-4
WeightSemanticThe attribute is a weight vector for skinning. 4 components: joint weight 1-4
ColorSemanticThe attribute is a vertex color vector. 4 components: r, g, b, and a
TargetPositionSemanticThe attribute is a position for the first morph target. 3 components: x, y, and z
TargetNormalSemanticThe attribute is a normal vector for the first morph target. 3 components: x, y, and z
TargetTangentSemanticThe attribute is a tangent vector for the first morph target. 3 components: x, y, and z
TargetBinormalSemanticThe attribute is a binormal vector for the first morph target. 3 components: x, y, and z

In addition, semantic can be IndexSemantic. In this case the attribute does not represent an entry in the vertex buffer, but rather describes the index data in the index buffer. Since there is always just one index per vertex, offset makes no sense for the index buffer, and should be left at zero.

The component type can be one of the following:

ConstantDescription
U16TypeThe attribute is an unsigned 16-bit integer.
U32TypeThe attribute is an unsigned 32-bit integer.
I32TypeThe attribute is a signed 32-bit integer.
F32TypeThe attribute is a single-precision float.

Note: The joint index data is typically I32Type. F32Type is also supported in order to enable functioning with APIs, such as OpenGL ES 2.0, that do not support integer vertex input attributes.

void QQuick3DGeometry::addAttribute(const QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute &attribute)

This is an overloaded function.

Adds vertex attribute description. Each attribute has a semantic, which specifies the usage of the attribute and the number of components it has, an offset from the beginning to the vertex to the attribute location inside a vertex and a componentType specifying the datatype and size of the attribute.

void QQuick3DGeometry::addSubset(int offset, int count, const QVector3D &boundsMin, const QVector3D &boundsMax, const QString &name = {})

Adds new subset to the geometry. Subsets allow rendering parts of the geometry with different materials. The materials are specified in the model.

If the geometry has index buffer, then the offset and count are the primitive offset and count of indices in the subset. If the geometry has only vertex buffer, the offset is the vertex offset and count is the number of vertices in the subset.

The bounds boundsMin and boundsMax should enclose the subset just like geometry bounds. Also the subset can have a name.

QQuick3DGeometry::Attribute QQuick3DGeometry::attribute(int index) const

Returns attribute definition number index

The attribute definitions are numbered from 0 to attributeCount() - 1

int QQuick3DGeometry::attributeCount() const

Returns the number of attributes defined for this geometry.

See also attribute.

QVector3D QQuick3DGeometry::boundsMax() const

Returns the maximum coordinate of the bounding volume.

See also setBounds.

QVector3D QQuick3DGeometry::boundsMin() const

Returns the minimum coordinate of the bounding volume.

See also setBounds.

void QQuick3DGeometry::clear()

Resets the geometry to its initial state, clearing previously set vertex and index data as well as attributes.

QByteArray QQuick3DGeometry::indexData() const

Returns the index buffer data.

See also setIndexData().

QQuick3DGeometry::PrimitiveType QQuick3DGeometry::primitiveType() const

Returns the primitive type used when rendering. The default is Triangles.

See also setPrimitiveType.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setBounds(const QVector3D &min, const QVector3D &max)

Sets the bounding volume of the geometry to the cube defined by the points min and max. This is used for picking.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setIndexData(const QByteArray &data)

Sets the index buffer to data. To use indexed drawing, add an attribute with IndexSemantic

See also indexData() and addAttribute.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setIndexData(int offset, const QByteArray &data)

This is an overloaded function.

Updates a subset of the index buffer. offset specifies the offset in bytes, data specifies the size and the data.

This function will not resize the buffer. If offset + data.size() is greater than the current size of the buffer, the overshooting data will be ignored.

Note: The partial update functions for vertex and index data do not offer any guarantee on how such changes are implemented internally. Depending on the underlying implementation, even partial changes may lead to updating the entire graphics resource.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setPrimitiveType(QQuick3DGeometry::PrimitiveType type)

Sets the primitive type used for rendering to type.

ConstantDescription
PointsThe primitives are points.
LineStripThe primitives are lines in a strip.
LinesThe primitives are lines in a list.
TriangleStripThe primitives are triangles in a strip.
TriangleFanThe primitives are triangles in a fan. Be aware that triangle fans may not be supported at run time, depending on the underlying graphics API.
TrianglesThe primitives are triangles in a list.

The initial value is Triangles.

Note: Be aware that triangle fans (TriangleFan) may not be supported at run time, depending on the underlying graphics API. For example, with Direct 3D this topology will not be functional at all.

Note: The point size for Points and the line width for Lines and LineStrip are controlled by the material. Be aware however that sizes other than 1 may not be supported at run time, depending on the underlying graphics API.

See also primitiveType().

void QQuick3DGeometry::setStride(int stride)

Sets the stride of the vertex buffer to stride, measured in bytes. This is the distance between two consecutive vertices in the buffer.

For example, a tightly packed, interleaved vertex buffer for a geometry using PositionSemantic, IndexSemantic, and ColorSemantic will have a stride of 28 (Seven floats in total: Three for position, four for color, and none for indexes, which do not go in the vertex buffer.)

Note: QQuick3DGeometry expects, and works only with, vertex data with an interleaved attribute layout.

See also stride() and addAttribute.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setVertexData(const QByteArray &data)

Sets the vertex buffer data. The buffer should hold all the vertex data packed in the array, as described by the attribute definitions. Note that this does not include attributes with IndexSemantic, which belong in the index buffer.

See also vertexData(), addAttribute, setStride, and setIndexData.

void QQuick3DGeometry::setVertexData(int offset, const QByteArray &data)

This is an overloaded function.

Updates a subset of the vertex buffer. offset specifies the offset in bytes, data specifies the size and the data.

This function will not resize the buffer. If offset + data.size() is greater than the current size of the buffer, the overshooting data will be ignored.

Note: The partial update functions for vertex and index data do not offer any guarantee on how such changes are implemented internally. Depending on the underlying implementation, even partial changes may lead to updating the entire graphics resource.

int QQuick3DGeometry::stride() const

Returns the byte stride of the vertex buffer.

See also setStride.

QVector3D QQuick3DGeometry::subsetBoundsMax(int subset) const

Returns the number of maximum bounds of a subset.

See also subsetBoundsMin.

QVector3D QQuick3DGeometry::subsetBoundsMin(int subset) const

Returns the number of minimum bounds of a subset.

See also subsetBoundsMax.

int QQuick3DGeometry::subsetCount() const

Returns the number of subsets.

int QQuick3DGeometry::subsetCount(int subset) const

Returns the subset primitive count.

See also subsetOffset.

QString QQuick3DGeometry::subsetName(int subset) const

Returns the subset name.

int QQuick3DGeometry::subsetOffset(int subset) const

Returns the subset offset to the vertex or index buffer.

See also subsetCount.

QByteArray QQuick3DGeometry::vertexData() const

Returns the vertex buffer data set by setVertexData.

See also setVertexData().

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