Concurrent Filter and Filter-Reduce#

The QtConcurrent::filter(), QtConcurrent::filtered() and QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() functions filter items in a sequence such as a QList in parallel. QtConcurrent::filter() modifies a sequence in-place, QtConcurrent::filtered() returns a new sequence containing the filtered content, and QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() returns a single result.

These functions are part of the Qt Concurrent framework.

Each of the above functions have a blocking variant that returns the final result instead of a QFuture . You use them in the same way as the asynchronous variants.

strings = ...
# each call blocks until the entire operation is finished
lowerCaseStrings = QtConcurrent.blockingFiltered(strings, allLowerCase)
QtConcurrent.blockingFilter(strings, allLowerCase)
dictionary = QtConcurrent.blockingFilteredReduced(strings, allLowerCase, addToDictionary)

Note that the result types above are not QFuture objects, but real result types (in this case, QStringList and QSet < QString >).

Concurrent Filter#

QtConcurrent::filtered() takes an input sequence and a filter function. This filter function is then called for each item in the sequence, and a new sequence containing the filtered values is returned.

The filter function must be of the form:

function = bool(T t)

T must match the type stored in the sequence. The function returns true if the item should be kept, false if it should be discarded.

This example shows how to keep strings that are all lower-case from a QStringList :

allLowerCase = bool(QString string)

    return string.lowered() == string

strings = ...
lowerCaseStrings = QtConcurrent.filtered(strings, allLowerCase)

The results of the filter are made available through QFuture . See the QFuture and QFutureWatcher documentation for more information on how to use QFuture in your applications.

If you want to modify a sequence in-place, use QtConcurrent::filter():

strings = ...
future = QtConcurrent.filter(strings, allLowerCase)

Since the sequence is modified in place, QtConcurrent::filter() does not return any results via QFuture . However, you can still use QFuture and QFutureWatcher to monitor the status of the filter.

Concurrent Filter-Reduce#

QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() is similar to QtConcurrent::filtered(), but instead of returning a sequence with the filtered results, the results are combined into a single value using a reduce function.

The reduce function must be of the form:

function = V(T result, U intermediate)

T is the type of the final result, U is the type of items being filtered. Note that the return value and return type of the reduce function are not used.

Call QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() like this:

def addToDictionary(dictionary, string):

    dictionary.insert(string)

strings = ...
dictionary = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(strings, allLowerCase, addToDictionary)

The reduce function will be called once for each result kept by the filter function, and should merge the intermediate into the result variable. QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() guarantees that only one thread will call reduce at a time, so using a mutex to lock the result variable is not necessary. The ReduceOptions enum provides a way to control the order in which the reduction is done.

Additional API Features#

Using Iterators instead of Sequence#

Each of the above functions has a variant that takes an iterator range instead of a sequence. You use them in the same way as the sequence variants:

strings = ...
lowerCaseStrings = QtConcurrent.filtered(strings.constBegin(), strings.constEnd(), allLowerCase)
# filter in-place only works on non-const iterators
future = QtConcurrent.filter(strings.begin(), strings.end(), allLowerCase)
dictionary = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(strings.constBegin(), strings.constEnd(), allLowerCase, addToDictionary)

Using Member Functions#

QtConcurrent::filter(), QtConcurrent::filtered(), and QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() accept pointers to member functions. The member function class type must match the type stored in the sequence:

# keep only images with an alpha channel
images = ...
alphaImages = QtConcurrent.filter(images, QImage.hasAlphaChannel)
# retrieve gray scale images
images = ...
grayscaleImages = QtConcurrent.filtered(images, QImage.isGrayscale)
# create a set of all printable characters
characters = ...
set = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(characters, qOverload<>(QChar.isPrint),()
                                                         qOverload<QChar>(QSet<QChar>::insert))

Note the use of qOverload . It is needed to resolve the ambiguity for the methods, that have multiple overloads.

Also note that when using QtConcurrent::filteredReduced(), you can mix the use of normal and member functions freely:

# can mix normal functions and member functions with QtConcurrent::filteredReduced()
# create a dictionary of all lower cased strings
bool = extern(QString string)
strings = ...
lowerCase = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(strings, allLowerCase,()
                                                                 qOverload<QString>(QSet<QString>::insert))
# create a collage of all gray scale images
void = extern(QImage collage, QImage grayscaleImage)
images = ...
collage = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(images, QImage.isGrayscale, addToCollage)

Using Function Objects#

QtConcurrent::filter(), QtConcurrent::filtered(), and QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() accept function objects for the filter function. These function objects can be used to add state to a function call:

class StartsWith():

    StartsWith(QString string)
    self.m_string = string
    operator = bool()(QString testString)

        return testString.startsWith(m_string)

    m_string = QString()

strings = ...
fooString = QtConcurrent.filtered(strings, StartsWith("Foo"))

Function objects are also supported for the reduce function:

class StringTransform():

    def operator(result, value):

fooString =
        QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(strings, StartsWith("Foo")), StringTransform()

Using Lambda Expressions#

QtConcurrent::filter(), QtConcurrent::filtered(), and QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() accept lambda expressions for the filter and reduce function:

# keep only even integers
list = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }
QtConcurrent.blockingFilter(list, [](int n) { return (n  1) == 0; })
# retrieve only even integers
list2 = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }
QFuture<int> future = QtConcurrent.filtered(list2, [](int x) {
    return (x  1) == 0
})
results = future.results()
# add up all even integers
list3 = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }
sum = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(list3,()
    [](int x) {
        return (x  1) == 0
    },
    [](int sum, int x) {
        sum += x

)

When using QtConcurrent::filteredReduced() or QtConcurrent::blockingFilteredReduced(), you can mix the use of normal functions, member functions and lambda expressions freely.

def intSumReduce(sum, x):

    sum += x

list = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }
sum = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(list,()
    [] (int x) {
        return (x  1) == 0
    },
    intSumReduce
)

You can also pass a lambda as a reduce object:

keepEvenIntegers = bool(int x)

    return (x  1) == 0

list = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }
sum = QtConcurrent.filteredReduced(list,()
    keepEvenIntegers,
    [](int sum, int x) {
        sum += x

)

Wrapping Functions that Take Multiple Arguments#

If you want to use a filter function takes more than one argument, you can use a lambda function or std::bind() to transform it onto a function that takes one argument.

As an example, we use contains() :

QString.contains = bool(QRegularExpression regexp)

contains() takes 2 arguments (including the “this” pointer) and can’t be used with QtConcurrent::filtered() directly, because QtConcurrent::filtered() expects a function that takes one argument. To use contains() with QtConcurrent::filtered() we have to provide a value for the regexp argument:

strings = ...
QFuture<QString> future = QtConcurrent.filtered(list, [](QString str) {
    return str.contains(QRegularExpression("^\\S+$")) # matches strings without whitespace
})