The Qt Resource System#
A platform-independent mechanism for shipping resource files in an application.
The Qt resource system is a platform-independent mechanism for shipping resource files in an application. Use it if your application always needs a certain set of files (like icons, translation files, images), and you don’t want to use system-specific means to package and locate these resources.
Most commonly, the resource files are embedded into your application executable, or in libraries and plugins that are loaded by the application executable. Alternatively, the resource files can also be stored in an exernal resource file .
The resource system is based on tight cooperation between Qt’s rcc resource compiler, the build system, and the Qt runtime API.
Currently, the Qt resource system does not make use of any system-specific capabilities for handling resources, such as the ones on Windows, macOS, and iOS. This might change in a future Qt release.
The Qt Resource Compiler (rcc)#
The Resource Compiler (rcc) command line tool reads resource files and generates either a C++ or Python source file, or an
The list of files and related metadata is passed to
rcc in the form of a Qt Resource Collection File .
By default, rcc will generate C++ source code that is then compiled as part of an executable or library. The
-g python option generates Python source code instead. The
-binary option generates a binary archive that is by convention saved in an
.rcc file and can be loaded at runtime.
Qt Resource Collection File (.qrc)#
.qrc file is an XML document that enumerates local files to be included as runtime resources. It serves as input to
Here’s an example
<Code snippet "/tmp/snapshot-qt5full-6.3/qt5/qtbase/resource-system/application.qrc" not found>
<file> element in the XML identifies a file in the application’s source tree. The path is resolved relative to the directory containing the
The path is also used by default to identify the file’s content at runtime. That is, the file
copy.png will be available in the resource system as
qrc:/images/copy.png. To override this default run-time name, see Prefixes and Aliases .
Qt Creator, Qt Design Studio, Qt Designer, and Qt Visual Studio Tools allow you to create, inspect and edit
.qrc files through a convenient user interface. Except for Qt Designer, they also provide wizards for projects using the Qt resource system.
Build System Integration#
CMAKE_AUTORCC is enabled, you can just add
.qrc files as sources to your executable or library. The referenced resource files will then be embedded into the binary:
<Code snippet "resource-system/CMakeLists.txt:AUTORCC" not found>
See CMake’s AUTORCC documentation for more details about AUTORCC.
An alternative to AUTORCC is using Qt6Core’s CMake function qt_add_resources , which gives more control over the creation of resources. For example, it allows you to specify the content of the resource directly in the project file without writing a
.qrc file first:
<Code snippet "resource-system/CMakeLists.txt:qt_add_resources" not found>
Finally, qt_add_qml_module allows you to embed Qt Quick resources into the resource system of your application. The function is defined in the
Qml component of the
Qt6 CMake package.
qmake supports handing resources with the RESOURCES variable. If you add a
.qrc file path to the variable, the listed resource files will be embedded into the generated library or executable:
<Code snippet "resource-system/application.pro:0" not found>
For simple applications, it is also possible to let qmake generate the
.qrc file for you, avoiding the need for an additional file to be maintained:
<Code snippet "resource-system/application.pro:1" not found>
Qt API that deals with iterating and reading files has built-in support for the Qt Resource System. You can pass a resource path instead of a local file path to
QDir , but also for instance to the
QImage , and
cutAct = QAction(QIcon(":/images/cut.png"), tr("Cut"), self)
: prefix makes it explicit that “/images/cut.png” should be loaded from the Qt Resource System.
You can also reference the Qt resource system through a
QUrl . Use the
qrc scheme in this case:
engine = QQmlApplicationEngine() engine.load(QUrl("qrc:/myapp/main.qml"))
See the Application example for an actual application that uses Qt’s resource system to store its icons.
.qrc file can set a prefix to be added to each local file name, given in a
<file> element, to get the name by which the file shall be known within the resource system.
Prefixes allow you to structure the resources, avoiding clashes between resource files added through different
.qrc files in different libraries or plugins.
/qt-project.org prefixes are reserved for documented use cases in Qt. The qt.conf file is for instance looked up in
Sometimes it is convenient to make a resource file available under a different path at runtime.
.qrc files allow this by setting an
The file is from the application then only accessible as
Some resources need to change based on the user’s locale, such as translation files or icons. Resource Collection Files support this through a
lang attribute to the
qresource tag, specifying a suitable locale string. For example:
<qresource> <file>cut.jpg</file> </qresource> <qresource lang="fr"> <file alias="cut.jpg">cut_fr.jpg</file> </qresource>
If the user’s locale is French (i.e.,
system() .language() is French),
qrc:/cut.jpg becomes a reference to the
cut_fr.jpg image. For other locales,
cut.jpg is used.
QLocale documentation for a description of the format to use for locale strings.
QFileSelector for an additional mechanism to select locale-specific resources.
Embedding Large Files#
rcc embeds the resource files into executables in the form of C++ arrays. This can be problematic especially for large resources.
If the compiler takes too long, or even fails because of memory overflow, you can opt into a special mode where the resources are embedded as part of a two-step process. The C++ compiler only reserves enough space in the target executable or library for the resources. The actual embedding of the resource file’s content and metadata is then done after the compilation and linking phase, through another rcc call.
For qmake, this is enabled by adding
resources_big to the
<Code snippet "resource-system/application.pro:2" not found>
For CMake, you need to use the qt_add_big_resources function:
<Code snippet "resource-system/CMakeLists.txt:qt_add_big_resources" not found>
External Resource Files#
An alternative to embedding the resource files into the binary is to store them in a separate
rcc allows this with the
-binary option. Such a
.rcc file must then be loaded at runtime with
For example, a set of resource data specified in a
.qrc file can be compiled in the following way:
rcc -binary myresource.qrc -o myresource.rcc
In the application, this resource would be registered with code like this:
If you use CMake, you can use the qt_add_binary_resources function to schedule the
rcc call above:
<Code snippet "resource-system/CMakeLists.txt:qt_add_binary_resources" not found>
Resources in a Qt for Python application#
The resource collection file is converted to a Python module by using the resource compiler rcc:
rcc -g python application.qrc > application_rc.py
The module can then be imported in the application:
rcc attempts to compress the content to optimize disk space usage in the final binaries. By default, it will perform a heuristic check to determine whether compressing is worth it and will store the content uncompressed if it fails to sufficiently compress. To control the threshold, you can use the
-threshold option, which tells
rcc the percentage of the original file size that must be gained for it to store the file in compressed form.
rcc -threshold 25 myresources.qrc
The default value is “70”, indicating that the compressed file must be 70% smaller than the original (no more than 30% of the original file size).
It is possible to turn off compression if desired. This can be useful if your resources already contain a compressed format, such as
.png files, and you do not want to incur the CPU cost at build time to confirm that it can’t be compressed. Another reason is if disk usage is not a problem and the application would prefer to keep the content as clean memory pages at runtime. You do this by giving the
-no-compress command line argument.
rcc -no-compress myresources.qrc
rcc also gives you some control over the compression level and compression algorithm, for example:
rcc -compress 2 -compress-algo zlib myresources.qrc
It is also possible to use
compress-algo as attributes in a .qrc
<qresource> <file compress="1" compress-algo="zstd">data.txt</file> </qresource>
The above will select the
zstd algorithm with compression level 1.
rcc supports the following compression algorithms and compression levels:
best: use the best algorithm among the ones below, at its highest compression level, to achieve the most compression at the expense of using a lot of CPU time during compilation. This value is useful in the XML file to indicate a file should be most compressed, regardless of which algorithms
zstd: use the Zstandard library to compress contents. Valid compression levels range from 1 to 19, 1 is least compression (least CPU time) and 19 is the most compression (most CPU time). The default level is 14. A special value of 0 tells the
zstdlibrary to choose an implementation-defined default.
zlib: use the zlib library to compress contents. Valid compression levels range from 1 to 9, with 1 applying the least compression (least CPU time) and 9 the most compression (most CPU time). The special value 0 means “no compression” and should not be used. The default is implementation-defined, but usually is level 6.
none: no compression. This is the same as the
Support for both Zstandard and zlib are optional. If a given library was not detected at compile time, attempting to pass
-compress-algo for that library will result in an error. The default compression algorithm is
zstd if it is enabled,
zlib if not.
Explicit Loading and Unloading of Embedded Resources#
Resources embedded in C++ executable or library code are automatically registered to the Qt resource system in a constructor of an internal global variable. Since the global variables are initialized before main() runs, the resources are available when the program starts to run.
When embedding resources in static libraries, the C++ linker might remove the static variables that register the resources. If you embed resources in a static library, you therefore need to explicitly register your resources by calling
Q_INIT_RESOURCE() with the base name of the
.qrc file. For example:
def __init__(self, BaseClass(): Q_INIT_RESOURCE(resources) file = QFile(":/myfile.dat") ...
You can also explicitly remove registered resources from the application, for instance when unloading a plugin. Use
Q_CLEANUP_RESOURCE() for this.
Note: As the resource initializers generated by rcc are declared in the global namespace, your calls to
Q_CLEANUP_RESOURCE() need to be done outside any namespace.