Queued Custom Type Example#
Demonstrates multi-thread programming using Qt.
The Queued Custom Type example shows how to send custom types between threads with queued signals and slots.
In the Custom Type Example , we showed how to integrate custom types with the meta-object system, enabling them to be stored in
QVariant objects, written out in debugging information and used in signal-slot communication.
In this example, we create a new value class,
Block, and register it with the meta-object system to enable us to send instances of it between threads using queued signals and slots.
The Block Class#
Block class is similar to the
Message class described in the Custom Type Example . It provides the default constructor, copy constructor and destructor in the public section of the class that the meta-object system requires. It describes a colored rectangle.
class Block(): # public Block() Block(Block other) ~Block() Block(QRect rect, QColor color) color = QColor() rect = QRect() # private m_rect = QRect() m_color = QColor() Q_DECLARE_METATYPE(Block)
We will still need to register it with the meta-object system at run-time by calling the
qRegisterMetaType() template function before we make any signal-slot connections that use this type. Even though we do not intend to use the type with
QVariant in this example, it is good practice to also declare the new type with
The implementation of the
Block class is trivial, so we avoid quoting it here.
The Window Class#
We define a simple
Window class with a public slot that accepts a
Block object. The rest of the class is concerned with managing the user interface and handling images.
class Window(QWidget): Q_OBJECT # public Window(QWidget parent = None) def loadImage(image): slots: = public() def addBlock(block): slots: = private() def loadImage(): def resetUi(): # private label = QLabel() pixmap = QPixmap() loadButton = QPushButton() resetButton = QPushButton() path = QString() thread = RenderThread()
Window class also contains a worker thread, provided by a
RenderThread object. This will emit signals to send
Block objects to the window’s
The parts of the
Window class that are most relevant are the constructor and the
The constructor creates a thread for rendering images, sets up a user interface containing a label and two push buttons that are connected to slots in the same class.
def __init__(self, parent): QWidget.__init__(self, parent) self.thread = RenderThread(self) label = QLabel(self) label.setAlignment(Qt.AlignCenter) loadButton = QPushButton(tr("Load image..."), self) resetButton = QPushButton(tr("Stop"), self) resetButton.setEnabled(False) connect(loadButton, QPushButton.clicked, self, QOverload<>::of(Window::loadImage)) connect(resetButton, QPushButton.clicked, thread, RenderThread::stopProcess) connect(thread, RenderThread::finished, self, Window::resetUi) connect(thread, RenderThread::sendBlock, self, Window::addBlock)
In the last of these connections, we connect a signal in the
RenderThread object to the
addBlock(Block) slot in the window.
... setWindowTitle(tr("Queued Custom Type"))
The rest of the constructor simply sets up the layout of the window.
addBlock(Block) slot receives blocks from the rendering thread via the signal-slot connection set up in the constructor:
def addBlock(self, block): color = block.color() color.setAlpha(64) painter = QPainter() painter.begin(pixmap) painter.fillRect(block.rect(), color) painter.end() label.setPixmap(pixmap)
We simply paint these onto the label as they arrive.
The RenderThread Class#
RenderThread class processes an image, creating
Block objects and using the
sendBlock(Block) signal to send them to other components in the example.
class RenderThread(QThread): Q_OBJECT # public RenderThread(QObject parent = None) ~RenderThread() def processImage(image): signals: def sendBlock(block): slots: = public() def stopProcess(): protected: def run(): # private m_abort = bool() m_image = QImage() mutex = QMutex()
The constructor and destructor are not quoted here. These take care of setting up the thread’s internal state and cleaning up when it is destroyed.
Processing is started with the
processImage() function, which calls the
RenderThread class’s reimplementation of the
<Code snippet "threads/queuedcustomtype/renderthread.cpp:processing the image (start)" not found>
Ignoring the details of the way the image is processed, we see that the signal containing a block is emitted in the usual way:
... <Code snippet "threads/queuedcustomtype/renderthread.cpp:processing the image (finish)" not found>
Each signal that is emitted will be queued and delivered later to the window’s
Registering the Type#
In the example’s
main() function, we perform the registration of the
Block class as a custom type with the meta-object system by calling the
qRegisterMetaType() template function:
if __name__ == "__main__": app = QApplication() //! [register meta-type for queued communications] qRegisterMetaType<Block>() //! [register meta-type for queued communications] window = Window() window.show() window.loadImage(createImage(256, 256)) sys.exit(app.exec())
This call is placed here to ensure that the type is registered before any signal-slot connections are made that use it.
The rest of the
main() function is concerned with setting a seed for the pseudo-random number generator, creating and showing the window, and setting a default image. See the source code for the implementation of the
This example showed how a custom type can be registered with the meta-object system so that it can be used with signal-slot connections between threads. For ordinary communication involving direct signals and slots, it is enough to simply declare the type in the way described in the Custom Type Example .
In practice, both the
Q_DECLARE_METATYPE() macro and the
qRegisterMetaType() template function can be used to register custom types, but
qRegisterMetaType() is only required if you need to perform signal-slot communication or need to create and destroy objects of the custom type at run-time.
More information on using custom types with Qt can be found in the Creating Custom Qt Types document.