TableView QML Type

Provides a table view of items to display data from a model. More...

Import Statement: import QtQuick 2.3
Since: Qt 5.12
Inherits:

Flickable

Properties

Attached Properties

Attached Signals

Methods

Detailed Description

A TableView has a model that defines the data to be displayed, and a delegate that defines how the data should be displayed.

TableView inherits Flickable. This means that while the model can have any number of rows and columns, only a subsection of the table is usually visible inside the viewport. As soon as you flick, new rows and columns enter the viewport, while old ones exit and are removed from the viewport. The rows and columns that move out are reused for building the rows and columns that move into the viewport. As such, the TableView support models of any size without affecting performance.

A TableView displays data from models created from built-in QML types such as ListModel and XmlListModel, which populates the first column only in a TableView. To create models with multiple columns, either use TableModel or a C++ model that inherits QAbstractItemModel.

Example Usage

C++ Models

The following example shows how to create a model from C++ with multiple columns:

#include <qqml.h>
#include <QAbstractTableModel>

class TableModel : public QAbstractTableModel
{
    Q_OBJECT
    QML_ELEMENT
    QML_ADDED_IN_MINOR_VERSION(1)

public:
    int rowCount(const QModelIndex & = QModelIndex()) const override
    {
        return 200;
    }

    int columnCount(const QModelIndex & = QModelIndex()) const override
    {
        return 200;
    }

    QVariant data(const QModelIndex &index, int role) const override
    {
        switch (role) {
            case Qt::DisplayRole:
                return QString("%1, %2").arg(index.column()).arg(index.row());
            default:
                break;
        }

        return QVariant();
    }

    QHash<int, QByteArray> roleNames() const override
    {
        return { {Qt::DisplayRole, "display"} };
    }
};

And then how to use it from QML:

import QtQuick 2.12
import TableModel 0.1

TableView {
    anchors.fill: parent
    columnSpacing: 1
    rowSpacing: 1
    clip: true

    model: TableModel {}

    delegate: Rectangle {
        implicitWidth: 100
        implicitHeight: 50
        Text {
            text: display
        }
    }
}

QML Models

For prototyping and displaying very simple data (from a web API, for example), TableModel can be used:

import QtQuick 2.14
import Qt.labs.qmlmodels 1.0

TableView {
    anchors.fill: parent
    columnSpacing: 1
    rowSpacing: 1
    clip: true

    model: TableModel {
        TableModelColumn { display: "name" }
        TableModelColumn { display: "color" }

        rows: [
            {
                "name": "cat",
                "color": "black"
            },
            {
                "name": "dog",
                "color": "brown"
            },
            {
                "name": "bird",
                "color": "white"
            }
        ]
    }

    delegate: Rectangle {
        implicitWidth: 100
        implicitHeight: 50
        border.width: 1

        Text {
            text: display
            anchors.centerIn: parent
        }
    }
}

Reusing items

TableView recycles delegate items by default, instead of instantiating from the delegate whenever new rows and columns are flicked into view. This approach gives a huge performance boost, depending on the complexity of the delegate.

When an item is flicked out, it moves to the reuse pool, which is an internal cache of unused items. When this happens, the TableView::pooled signal is emitted to inform the item about it. Likewise, when the item is moved back from the pool, the TableView::reused signal is emitted.

Any item properties that come from the model are updated when the item is reused. This includes index, row, and column, but also any model roles.

Note: Avoid storing any state inside a delegate. If you do, reset it manually on receiving the TableView::reused signal.

If an item has timers or animations, consider pausing them on receiving the TableView::pooled signal. That way you avoid using the CPU resources for items that are not visible. Likewise, if an item has resources that cannot be reused, they could be freed up.

If you don't want to reuse items or if the delegate cannot support it, you can set the reuseItems property to false.

Note: While an item is in the pool, it might still be alive and respond to connected signals and bindings.

The following example shows a delegate that animates a spinning rectangle. When it is pooled, the animation is temporarily paused:

Component {
    id: tableViewDelegate
    Rectangle {
        implicitWidth: 100
        implicitHeight: 50

        TableView.onPooled: rotationAnimation.pause()
        TableView.onReused: rotationAnimation.resume()

        Rectangle {
            id: rect
            anchors.centerIn: parent
            width: 40
            height: 5
            color: "green"

            RotationAnimation {
                id: rotationAnimation
                target: rect
                duration: (Math.random() * 2000) + 200
                from: 0
                to: 359
                running: true
                loops: Animation.Infinite
            }
        }
    }
}

Row heights and column widths

When a new column is flicked into view, TableView will determine its width by calling the columnWidthProvider function. TableView does not store row height or column width, as it's designed to support large models containing any number of rows and columns. Instead, it will ask the application whenever it needs to know.

TableView uses the largest implicitWidth among the items as the column width, unless the columnWidthProvider property is explicitly set. Once the column width is found, all other items in the same column are resized to this width, even if new items that are flicked in later have larger implicitWidth. Setting an explicit width on an item is ignored and overwritten.

Note: The calculated width of a column is discarded when it is flicked out of the viewport, and is recalculated if the column is flicked back in. The calculation is always based on the items that are visible when the column is flicked in. This means that column width can be different each time, depending on which row you're at when the column enters. You should therefore have the same implicitWidth for all items in a column, or set columnWidthProvider. The same logic applies for the row height calculation.

If you change the values that a rowHeightProvider or a columnWidthProvider return for rows and columns inside the viewport, you must call forceLayout. This informs TableView that it needs to use the provider functions again to recalculate and update the layout.

Since Qt 5.13, if you want to hide a specific column, you can return 0 from the columnWidthProvider for that column. Likewise, you can return 0 from the rowHeightProvider to hide a row. If you return a negative number, TableView will fall back to calculate the size based on the delegate items.

Note: The size of a row or column should be a whole number to avoid sub-pixel alignment of items.

The following example shows how to set a simple columnWidthProvider together with a timer that modifies the values the function returns. When the array is modified, forceLayout is called to let the changes take effect:

TableView {
    id: tableView

    property var columnWidths: [100, 50, 80, 150]
    columnWidthProvider: function (column) { return columnWidths[column] }

    Timer {
        running: true
        interval: 2000
        onTriggered: {
            tableView.columnWidths[2] = 150
            tableView.forceLayout();
        }
    }
}

Overlays and underlays

All new items that are instantiated from the delegate are parented to the contentItem with the z value, 1. You can add your own items inside the Tableview, as child items of the Flickable. By controlling their z value, you can make them be on top of or underneath the table items.

Here is an example that shows how to add some text on top of the table, that moves together with the table as you flick:

TableView {
    id: tableView

    topMargin: header.implicitHeight

    Text {
        id: header
        text: "A table header"
    }
}

Selecting items

You can add selection support to TableView by assigning an ItemSelectionModel to the selectionModel property. It will then use this model to control which delegate items should be shown as selected. For a delegate item to be shown as selected, it needs to contain the following property:

required property bool selected

Note: It's important for the selected property to be defined as required. This will inform TableView that it should take responsibility for the property's value. If it's not defined as required, it will simply be ignored. See also Required Properties.

The following snippet shows how an application can render the delegate differently depending on the selected property:

    TableView {
        id: tableView
        anchors.fill: parent
        clip: true

        model: TableModel {
            TableModelColumn { display: "name" }
            rows: [ { "name": "Harry" }, { "name": "Hedwig" } ]
        }

        selectionModel: ItemSelectionModel {
            model: tableView.model
        }

        delegate: Rectangle {
            implicitWidth: 100
            implicitHeight: 30
            color: selected ? "blue" : "lightgray"

            required property bool selected

            Text { text: display }
        }
    }

Note: Qt Quick Controls offers a SelectionRectangle that can be used to let the user select cells.

Property Documentation

bottomRow : int

This property holds the bottom-most row that is currently visible inside the view.

See also leftColumn, rightColumn, and topRow.


columnSpacing : real

This property holds the spacing between the columns.

The default value is 0.


columnWidthProvider : var

This property can hold a function that returns the column width for each column in the model. It is called whenever TableView needs to know the width of a specific column. The function takes one argument, column, for which the TableView needs to know the width.

Since Qt 5.13, if you want to hide a specific column, you can return 0 width for that column. If you return a negative number, TableView calculates the width based on the delegate items.

Note: The columnWidthProvider will usually be called two times when a column is about to load (or when doing layout). First, to know if the column is visible and should be loaded. And second, to determine the width of the column after all items have been loaded. If you need to calculate the column width based on the size of the delegate items, you need to wait for the second call, when all the items have been loaded. You can check for this by calling isColumnLoaded(column), and simply return -1 if that is not yet the case.

See also rowHeightProvider, isColumnLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


[read-only] columns : int

This property holds the number of columns in the table.

Note: columns is usually equal to the number of columns in the model, but can temporarily differ until all pending model changes have been processed.

If the model is a list, columns will be 1.

This property is read only.


contentHeight : real

This property holds the table height required to accommodate the number of rows in the data model. This is usually not the same as the height of the view, which means that the table's height could be larger or smaller than the viewport height. As a TableView cannot always know the exact height of the table without loading all rows in the model, the contentHeight is usually an estimate based on the initially loaded table.

If you know what the height of the table will be, assign a value to contentHeight, to avoid unnecessary calculations and updates to the TableView.

See also contentWidth and rowHeightProvider.


contentWidth : real

This property holds the table width required to accommodate the number of columns in the model. This is usually not the same as the width of the view, which means that the table's width could be larger or smaller than the viewport width. As a TableView cannot always know the exact width of the table without loading all columns in the model, the contentWidth is usually an estimate based on the initially loaded table.

If you know what the width of the table will be, assign a value to contentWidth, to avoid unnecessary calculations and updates to the TableView.

See also contentHeight and columnWidthProvider.


delegate : Component

The delegate provides a template defining each cell item instantiated by the view. The model index is exposed as an accessible index property. The same applies to row and column. Properties of the model are also available depending upon the type of Data Model.

A delegate should specify its size using implicitWidth and implicitHeight. The TableView lays out the items based on that information. Explicit width or height settings are ignored and overwritten.

Note: Delegates are instantiated as needed and may be destroyed at any time. They are also reused if the reuseItems property is set to true. You should therefore avoid storing state information in the delegates.

See also Row heights and column widths and Reusing items.


leftColumn : int

This property holds the leftmost column that is currently visible inside the view.

See also rightColumn, topRow, and bottomRow.


model : model

This property holds the model that provides data for the table.

The model provides the set of data that is used to create the items in the view. Models can be created directly in QML using TableModel, ListModel, ObjectModel, or provided by a custom C++ model class. The C++ model must be a subclass of QAbstractItemModel or a simple list.

See also Data Models.


reuseItems : bool

This property holds whether or not items instantiated from the delegate should be reused. If set to false, any currently pooled items are destroyed.

See also Reusing items, TableView::pooled, and TableView::reused.


rightColumn : int

This property holds the rightmost column that is currently visible inside the view.

See also leftColumn, topRow, and bottomRow.


rowHeightProvider : var

This property can hold a function that returns the row height for each row in the model. It is called whenever TableView needs to know the height of a specific row. The function takes one argument, row, for which the TableView needs to know the height.

Since Qt 5.13, if you want to hide a specific row, you can return 0 height for that row. If you return a negative number, TableView calculates the height based on the delegate items.

Note: The rowHeightProvider will usually be called two times when a row is about to load (or when doing layout). First, to know if the row is visible and should be loaded. And second, to determine the height of the row after all items have been loaded. If you need to calculate the row height based on the size of the delegate items, you need to wait for the second call, when all the items have been loaded. You can check for this by calling isRowLoaded(row), and simply return -1 if that is not yet the case.

See also rowHeightProvider, isRowLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


rowSpacing : real

This property holds the spacing between the rows.

The default value is 0.


[read-only] rows : int

This property holds the number of rows in the table.

Note: rows is usually equal to the number of rows in the model, but can temporarily differ until all pending model changes have been processed.

This property is read only.


selectionModel : ItemSelectionModel

This property can be set to control which delegate items should be shown as selected. If the delegate has a required property bool selected defined, TableView will keep it in sync with the selection state of the corresponding model item in the selection model.

See also Selecting items and SelectionRectangle.


syncDirection : Qt::Orientations

If the syncView is set on a TableView, this property controls synchronization of flicking direction(s) for both tables. The default is Qt.Horizontal | Qt.Vertical, which means that if you flick either table in either direction, the other table is flicked the same amount in the same direction.

This property and syncView can be used to make two tableViews synchronize with each other smoothly in flicking regardless of the different overshoot/undershoot, velocity, acceleration/deceleration or rebound animation, and so on.

A typical use case is to make several headers flick along with the table.

See also syncView.


syncView : TableView

If this property of a TableView is set to another TableView, both the tables will synchronize with regard to flicking, column widths/row heights, and spacing according to syncDirection.

If syncDirection contains Qt.Horizontal, current tableView's column widths, column spacing, and horizontal flicking movement synchronizes with syncView's.

If syncDirection contains Qt.Vertical, current tableView's row heights, row spacing, and vertical flicking movement synchronizes with syncView's.

See also syncDirection.


topRow : int

This property holds the topmost row that is currently visible inside the view.

See also leftColumn, rightColumn, and bottomRow.


Attached Property Documentation

TableView.view : TableView

This attached property holds the view that manages the delegate instance. It is attached to each instance of the delegate.


Attached Signal Documentation

pooled()

This signal is emitted after an item has been added to the reuse pool. You can use it to pause ongoing timers or animations inside the item, or free up resources that cannot be reused.

This signal is emitted only if the reuseItems property is true.

Note: The corresponding handler is onPooled.

See also Reusing items, reuseItems, and reused.


reused()

This signal is emitted after an item has been reused. At this point, the item has been taken out of the pool and placed inside the content view, and the model properties such as index, row, and column have been updated.

Other properties that are not provided by the model does not change when an item is reused. You should avoid storing any state inside a delegate, but if you do, manually reset that state on receiving this signal.

This signal is emitted when the item is reused, and not the first time the item is created.

This signal is emitted only if the reuseItems property is true.

Note: The corresponding handler is onReused.

See also Reusing items, reuseItems, and pooled.


Method Documentation

Point cellAtPos(real x, real y, bool includeSpacing)

Convenience for calling cellAtPos(Qt.point(x, y), includeSpacing).


Point cellAtPos(point position, bool includeSpacing)

Returns the cell at the given position in the view. If no cell intersects with position, the return value will be point(-1, -1).

If includeSpacing is set to true, a cell's bounding box will be considered to include half the adjacent rowSpacing and columnSpacing on each side. The default value is false.

See also columnSpacing and rowSpacing.


[since 6.2] real columnWidth(int column)

Returns the width of the given column. If the column is not loaded (and therefore not visible), the return value will be -1.

Note: It's the applications responsibility to store what the column widths are, by using a columnWidthProvider. Hence, there is no setter function. This getter function is mostly useful if the TableView doesn't have a columnWidthProvider set, since otherwise you can call that function instead (which will work, even for columns that are not currently visible. If no columnWidthProvider is set, the height of a row will be equal to its implicitColumnWidth().

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.

See also columnWidthProvider, implicitColumnWidth(), isColumnLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


forceLayout()

Responding to changes in the model are batched so that they are handled only once per frame. This means the TableView delays showing any changes while a script is being run. The same is also true when changing properties, such as rowSpacing or leftMargin.

This method forces the TableView to immediately update the layout so that any recent changes take effect.

Calling this function re-evaluates the size and position of each visible row and column. This is needed if the functions assigned to rowHeightProvider or columnWidthProvider return different values than what is already assigned.


[since 6.2] real implicitColumnWidth(int column)

Returns the implicit width of the given column. If the column is not loaded (and therefore not visible), the return value will be -1.

The implicit width of a column is the largest implicitWidth found among the currently loaded delegate items inside that column. Widths returned by the columnWidthProvider will not be taken into account.

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.

See also columnWidthProvider, columnWidth(), isColumnLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


[since 6.2] real implicitRowHeight(int row)

Returns the implicit height of the given row. If the row is not loaded (and therefore not visible), the return value will be -1.

The implicit height of a row is the largest implicitHeight found among the currently loaded delegate items inside that row. Heights returned by the rowHeightProvider will not be taken into account.

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.

See also rowHeightProvider, rowHeight(), isRowLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


[since 6.2] bool isColumnLoaded(int column)

Returns true if the given column is loaded.

A column is loaded when TableView has loaded the delegate items needed to show the column inside the view. This also usually means that the column is visible for the user, but not always.

This function can be used whenever you need to iterate over the delegate items for a column, e.g from a columnWidthProvider, to be sure that the delegate items are available for iteration.

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.


[since 6.2] bool isRowLoaded(int row)

Returns true if the given row is loaded.

A row is loaded when TableView has loaded the delegate items needed to show the row inside the view. This also usually means that the row is visible for the user, but not always.

This function can be used whenever you need to iterate over the delegate items for a row, e.g from a rowHeightProvider, to be sure that the delegate items are available for iteration.

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.


Item itemAtCell(int column, int row)

Convenience for calling itemAtCell(Qt.point(column, row)).


Item itemAtCell(point cell)

Returns the delegate item at cell if loaded, otherwise null.

Note: only the items that are visible in the view are normally loaded. As soon as a cell is flicked out of the view, the item inside will either be unloaded or placed in the recycle pool. As such, the return value should never be stored.


positionViewAtCell(int column, int row, Qt.Alignment alignment, point offset)

Convenience for calling

positionViewAtCell(Qt.point(column, row), alignment, offset)

positionViewAtCell(point cell, Qt.Alignment alignment, point offset)

Positions contentX and contentY such that cell is at the position specified by alignment. alignment can be an or-ed combination of the following:

ConstantDescription
Qt.AlignLeftPosition the cell at the left of the view.
Qt.AlignHCenterPosition the cell at the horizontal center of the view.
Qt.AlignRightPosition the cell at the right of the view.
Qt.AlignTopPosition the cell at the top of the view.
Qt.AlignVCenterPosition the cell at the vertical center of the view.
Qt.AlignBottomPosition the cell at the bottom of the view.
Qt.AlignCenterThe same as (Qt.AlignHCenter | Qt.AlignVCenter)

If no vertical alignment is specified, vertical positioning will be ignored. The same is true for horizontal alignment.

Optionally, you can specify offset to move contentX and contentY an extra number of pixels beyond the target alignment. E.g if you want to position the view so that cell [10, 10] ends up at the top-left corner with a 5px margin, you could do:

positionViewAtCell(Qt.point(10, 10), Qt.AlignLeft | Qt.AlignTop, Qt.point(-5, -5))

Note: It is not recommended to use contentX or contentY to position the view at a particular cell. This is unreliable since removing items from the start of the table does not cause all other items to be repositioned. TableView can also sometimes place rows and columns at approximate positions to optimize for speed. The only exception is if the cell is already visible in the view, which can be checked upfront by calling itemAtCell().

Methods should only be called after the Component has completed. To position the view at startup, this method should be called by Component.onCompleted. For example, to position the view at the end:

Component.onCompleted: positionViewAtCell(Qt.point(columns - 1, rows - 1), Qt.AlignRight | Qt.AlignBottom)

positionViewAtColumn(int column, Qt.Alignment alignment, real offset)

Convenience method for calling

positionViewAtCell(Qt.point(column, 0),alignment& Qt.AlignHorizontal_Mask, Qt.point(offset, 0))


positionViewAtRow(int row, Qt.Alignment alignment, real offset)

Convenience method for calling

positionViewAtCell(Qt.point(0,row),alignment& Qt.AlignVertical_Mask, Qt.point(0,offset))


[since 6.2] real rowHeight(int row)

Returns the height of the given row. If the row is not loaded (and therefore not visible), the return value will be -1.

Note: It's the applications responsibility to store what the row heights are, by using a rowHeightProvider. Hence, there is no setter function. This getter function is mostly useful if the TableView doesn't have a rowHeightProvider set, since otherwise you can call that function instead (which will work, even for rows that are not currently visible. If no rowHeightProvider is set, the height of a row will be equal to its implicitRowHeight().

This method was introduced in Qt 6.2.

See also rowHeightProvider, implicitRowHeight(), isRowLoaded(), and Row heights and column widths.


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